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x�3zU��=�����*֟�;���?���2E���E�O����ZW��s~��,�gr����'�2��d�����đ8A7Q�ˢ_O�+�9+�z� Vq� ��|�;��/�4d����< Y�@�#� ��=� �q2w�./�y �m}$|gl���eތ�0��8�t]^��@�/�R}����+�m���:�i�#R���?�����5ַc�w�z3���=�����_��Q1��+YwEu ng��7ъX�{K��oj�@������r���GSD!sij�̲����e�z)���Еr�(d�g�heq�@��aʔ`H\A����@���`�{,�G������6�� �{��2�S. REAR = Springs marked: HA, or (R), or Rear. << Braking in turn Directional stability Scrub radius : 2% . /Type /XObject Scrub radius is the distance at the road surface between the tire line and the steering axis inclination (SAI) line extended downward through the steering axis. /Producer (PDF-XChange 4.0.181.0 \(Windows Seven Ultimate Professional Service Pack 1 \(Build 7601\)\)) Scrub is a bigger problem on production vehicles with relatively low longitudinal suspension rates often coupled with asymmetric and overly compliant steering systems (darn solid axle SUV's). The scrub radius can affect the way the steering responds in both a straight line and during cornering. /Type /XObject While included angle problems will affect the scrub radius, it is not the only thing that will affect it. The scrub radius of your car can be altered with different wheel offset and suspension design. 8 inch wide wheels & a slightly narrower slick cured this. !e�{�����������%���!����'}_@DTBB�+�(#� $. The scrub radius is the distance in front view between the king pin axis and the center of the contact patch of the wheel, where both would theoretically touch the road. This will affect how the tire contact patch interacts with the road during cornering, braking, and acceleration, and can cause unique toe characteristics depending on the design. endstream 4% : Implementation of all the corrective actions, not only improved steering returnability by 40% but also helped in reducing the cycle time in design … %PDF-1.4 The inclination of the KP axis in the side view is caster. /ColorSpace /DeviceGray If the scrub radius is small then the contact patch is spun in place when parking, which takes a lot more effort. You could watch the … FAQ’s Terminology Micro Cellular Jounce Bumper Scrub Radius Spring Rate 101 TECH NOTES H&R Technical Information Sheet (PDF) FAQ’s 1) Which are the front and rear springs? It is noted that the rate of change in scrub radius is reduced considerably which results in less tire wear and more stability . I agree with most everything stated by the folks so far, but one thing that can easily overwhelm a "good" scrub radius setup is the steering system itself. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. �������7��� /Mask 5 0 R }k ��hVD䘤� If it is inboard then the scrub radius is positive. Scrub radius : 10% . to 0 cm of scrub radius in the blow-out case. Fig 5 - scrub radius . A positive scrub radius tends to be beneficial while braking into a turn. R ESEARCH ON MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION SIMULA TION ANAL YSIS … Design, Analysis and Optimization of Steering System, Studying the Effect of Caster Angle on Wheel Parameters by Dynamic Analysis Using ADAMS CAR Software, Design of a Suspension for a Formula Student Race Car. The apparatus includes a back-drivable steer-by-wire system including a road wheel actuator assembly coupled to a wheel of the vehicle. 6 0 obj ?� ~��Ia��zYb��|,� �����=g���(�(�^@L�S��A+���6�=m� ��L�`��x���Y�������W�=YMm��p���Ѷ�R�������)ϥ�|�B~�%R:���.�G�E�M=�\}�6"ʕ H��� @�Z��卹�#s2'7�"-�����θ�Ă�N?�{���%�s���ۋ�70�fa|R�>`�� I.e. In an embodiment of the present invention, an apparatus for steering a vehicle is disclosed. %���� What Is Scrub Radius? The location of the steering gear linkage or rack can have a profound effect on how the vehicle handles. Its about changing the SAI/KPI to allow the wheel more inset over the hub so that the scrub radius is not excesive. It also reduces the risk, that a lose of traction on one front wheel during braking, causes the car to change direction. This makes it heavy unless you move a bit too. Active Application number US09/892,722 Other versions US20020001076A1 (en Inventor David A. Jackson While the scrub radius itself is an important aspect of the overall setup (steering), there's more to it than "just" the scrub radius. Zero scrub radius can cause too much tyre tread scuff on wider tyres [or resistance to turning effort] Positive scrub radius creates tyre drag on the outer edge ,causing the wheels to want to Toe-out. - posted in The Technical Forum Archive: Hi Chaps, can I ask a question please. Later model Porsches deal with this by moving the hub away from the lower strut mount thus giving more room for greater backspaced wheels without increasing positive scrub radius. The kingpin axis is the line between the upper and lower ball joints of the hub. We live & learn. o�O���4hI�Y̆ЖB̒ܤ�nZ��ˮmVR�ZB��B[K^�?3"����㷼 ��A�yy��������I��oo����f��[¾U(�� �\G��7eK��r@]A��7�a�h�e3,��'���dsŮ��i݉8��������+�W��z����6}jii�YD�x3]�Nia���s���/�#ݒvT�z:_�������kk����#�{���啬W�� Trackwidth The Distance between centre axis of tire from front view is known as trackwidth. >> As far as I know, a scrub radius of 0 is the ideal (centre point steering), but sometimes quite hard to achieve. But, with a positive scrub radius, you then have a small radius, from the KPI axis contact point with the ground, out to the centre of the contact patch. The road wheel actuator assembly defines a steering axis and the steering axis is off-set from a longitudinal axis of the wheel by a positive scrub radius. 0.225 m StW radius, measured from centre to rim edge. Scrub radius is one of those often overlooked things. Scrub radius is the distance at the road surface between the tire line and the steering axis inclination (SAI) line extended downward through the steering axis. The biggest effect is called bump steer. endstream 6��l�XV����h^�۝��o+���R�� ��� With 0 scrub, as the Mk2 has, when turning the steering without moving causes the wheel to rotate on its own axis/contact patch. Camber Ca Definition Camber is … << /Length 6805 This is actually desirable to help counteract Toe-in forces caused by positive caster. 7 0 obj Scrub radius helps this feel by providing feedback from the contact patch. /Width 160 >> ��5��`]��_���%B[��Cq �ϊ����f8�;}K's��+��� �b ��]C\�" ������׉��1� �bNY,���[�6�� e�rGZ�6��k��ѧޥ�i�����#�^����L�2��輇 |�X��.7�T�~3j^e� ?�^_�"DžA{���A�ө�jp��3�����T��)��T����[��*�82�3s���'��� ����JbJ��+����32N�ũ?YLN�'���$wO{5X�����ȟn����P8���QY���). �DG��_�Ø`��&uC�1�&ֳ�f�!@�jR0H�`iǤRLU�:���6?��1���̡2լ��Q��^JgKL�2d�36��! In 2008 USQ’s FSAE team was forced to abandon the competitiondue to a crash into a barrier which was thought to have been caused by the car’s suspension and steering system. scrub radius is produced when braking and steering is unstable. Positive scrub radius works well with suspensions that use dual control arms that use less caster and SAI to optimize geometry. endobj Fig.4 - Kingpin inclination angle . Mq�1����L�w���2���2���]�6�CQ"��&?eΕ�W�P��TU&�ʹ�Dp Ζs�h8�`!��ӱ#G-a]�#^��o�L�σ�a0�,��C#���="�oQU}w�i�$=��� ��-ذ?+���æu��iʞ��n���敟)E�$\�{�o%�(q�y�j:���g?>{^�c�q7��@z�q����O�jn��b*i�U#��W 3�*%�I� U��Ҳ�.�v�_ϖz�S��"U��w��v�������lS z�����+&utR�� �t��G-9b5T�3v���4�릂%�:$wn{�h�� 6"mϙ��l8kd�Wd�%8���x`kѪX�`�SA�%�i�y����N'�-�͌�{� �29�R�)9�Dfт�M�,v6'� 9�?9ICD%b�g�:Ƣ /Filter [/FlateDecode /CCITTFaxDecode] stream /DecodeParms [null <>] /DecodeParms [null <>] If the extrapolated KPI is outboard of the contact patch then the scrub radius is negative. ��.�HL����� You can download the paper by clicking the button above. As with anything else, a little of a good thing is great, but lot of a good thing is not necessarily better. /Subtype /Image Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) The inclination of the KP axis in the side view is caster. /Width 152 The steering gear and linkage or the rack and pinion connects the tie rods to the steering knuckles. The scrub radius is the distance in the front view between the point at which the kingpin would intersect with the ground and the center of the contact patch of the wheel where it intersects with the ground. 3 0 obj /Decode [1 0] /BitsPerComponent 1 I cringe when I see 3" wheel spacers and a set of deep dish wheels to get full width, without changing the axle. /Height 76 : +33 (0)4 50 02 34 34 Fax: +33 (0)4 50 68 58 93 Website: www.exxotest.com 11 00312458-v1 MT-TWINGO 1.2.3. 2) Which end of the spring is up? /Filter [/FlateDecode /CCITTFaxDecode] The location of the steering gear linkage or rack can have a … The scrub radius induced understeer on AX radius corners was gawdawful. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. VƥX@v'ʭ忸�y���2p���)��n��o��r���K�"��g�u��q��=|��@�Х���%Hz���n��l�]�#m2d ��R_p֐��uܰ�/!X����^"�����d[�_3k����w��Z����MR"E_�>V!? This distance must be exactly the same from side to side or the vehicle will pull strongly at all speeds. The steering gear and linkage or the rack and pinion connects the tie rods to the steering knuckles. ���'IJz�!�o?r�o+ Scrub radius basically refers to the distance between the tyre centre line and the point at which the Kingpin axis meets the ground in the front view. !��H� $� Q�> �۠� �w�6!�܀J t���۷��q���~ ���]vQ�{�/ 9�� ���r-���\��?�_P]Wf��)E��G�+� �j��� �c�P �wL�*� � endobj /BitsPerComponent 1 The scrub radius can affect the way the steering responds in both a straight line and during cornering. %�CKG������w����������������c��F�&�f�v������}`�}���ޅGDFEǤ��OK����UPXT�����K����Ʀo�-=�}��C�ߧ�gf��~"��76�����=:>9=;�����" �Σ��䫰�q�� scrub radius is preferred and also too much of scrub radius either positive or negative results high steering kickback. SAI is an imaginary line, that on strut suspensions runs through the lower ball joints and the upper end of the strut. proportional to the scrub radius, which will be felt by the driver at the steering wheel. x�| ��&��FD���Q�G�d������ x����i��3������m������x/���k���e�����`�_�t���P� )�d��y�Bי/����#̔U�י$���d������l7�� @�mH� !mZ�Ͷ��5�x:n�(�7�|:��X�s^�XH�0 ��-��)Va�t���8�S���n���O�b���n"!/��Ĩ� ��;Ho���u�c��g�"boN��UK�@�3�+F>пشW�6��IJ E��cH3�eD�:Ou�Ջ�+9�Zϒq��%�v��`!�6 ��i�^6~�&�wM?V�����H��S˸�o7��⺠޳��+�TɁ��(-n7J��j��9��k��r�02��3����|��|�s��4f�S �M�� I remember a long time ago with manual steering cranking the wheel to full lock while stopped. stream Advertisement. �a-��oK"�䪻(�0�!�Q�#ދ�4^���g$�{��j&�ҡGnkM�)�%���lgU���6�ս�JX��i35w�&�>��N®�sH�w_e���EX�x�~y��=ż�Bg��:b� �A�ac���'�P����]\��~z��>�/�x���Ӎ�Վ����� /CreationDate (D:20121102074026-07'00') FRONT = Springs marked: VA, or (F), or Front. Braking in turn Steering effort : Scrub radius . >> A 5-6" scrub radius on these vehicles can lead to some pretty disconcerting drifts/pulls during hard braking and/or rough road conditions. The scrub radius of your car can be altered with different wheel offset and suspension design. SU:Z���%;(� :���S1�KH���9���C�F�=�n��l4f� 2� � &෦�$(��piʨAd{�h��9,����z#n1�3�X�����n� ��W� /Type /XObject Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Negative scrub also helps reduce torque steer in front wheel drive cars. /Height 76 5.Instantaneous center: << >> the scrub radius is distance between the kingpin axis and the center of the tire print on the ground [14]. It could be positive, negative or zero. /Width 160 /Height 222 To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. Tel. /Subtype /Image stream /Filter [/FlateDecode /DCTDecode] /Length 135 /Length 133 With a small amount of scrub radius, the tire is turned about the kingpin axis, slightly offset from the tire’s centerline. Different wheels or SAI is an imaginary line, that on strut suspensions runs through the lower ball joints and the upper end of the strut. Fig. Page 1 of 2 - SCRUB RADIUS. the two modes will behave the same during nor- The parameters obtained from this axis are described in an earlier post. 5 0 obj /Subtype /Image n�o8,~�ʿ�~04�d����xW����38kVpc�Gi 祽�5���}2Z�8z�u�:嘤Lp�����^�/�!h�� Scrub radius basically refers to the distance between the tyre centre line and the point at which the Kingpin axis meets the ground in the front view. endobj d d d = 0 d Positive scrub radius Negative scrub radius . /ColorSpace /DeviceGray x�uxuTT]��DBZ����i����v�$$��FB�K���TJ`H�߼�������u׺�S����g?�b�� �c m ]Q_Q vP� n�!�%! /ImageMask true Scrub radius is an elusive, almost mythical maiden on the edge of key settings like camber, offset and wheel size, and it’s a key output of the overall equation. When viewing a wheel from front view, the scrub radius is the distance between where the extrapolated line of kingpin axis touches the road and the tyre contact patch centre point. *���m���k���u��r ��a���1|1�~�|*�,P���dz�a�W$��y�� The main effect of this is to introduce a turning moment. Fig.5 Trackwidth Geometry Note: Generally narrow (small) trackwidth are used at rear to avoid hit cones with the back when they are The parameters obtained from this axis are described in an earlier post. I wonder if any one would have any thoughts on a problem I have. 18 Time variation of steering assistance angle for different scrub radii 4.6 Simulation of Brake-in-turn Analysis to Study the Effect Scrub Radius In brake-in-turn analysis, the vehicle was made to run on the circular test track of 3.5 m radius with lateral acceleration of 0.35 g and then the brakes were applied. Scrub radius is an elusive, almost mythical maiden on the edge of key settings like camber, offset and wheel size, and it’s a key output of the overall equation. Scrub Radius Scrub radius is the distance between where the SAI intersects the ground and the center of the tire. ��\�+���$���X��A�(o^i�$^���ozs��́�ɗ=ތz8�i���G�6 NK2���?��G�0����^��3o�0�{h�+] �혘��|ј� The system was made configurable also to function as a conventional power steering system, however preserving the normal torque characteristics, which then is analogous to 12 cm of scrub radius. This creates a small tire/road friction resistance that in turn translates into feedback from the road. �fYUz�ټ�d�U9��+M��챠p�VN��y� radius target scrub radius image Prior art date 2000-06-28 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Keeping scrub radius small will make the car easier to handle at low speeds. << /BitsPerComponent 8 Is known as trackwidth scrub also helps reduce torque steer in front wheel cars. Radius is positive inclination of the present invention, an apparatus for steering a vehicle is disclosed,... Side view is caster and/or rough road conditions pull strongly at all speeds you a. Center: the scrub radius of your car can be altered with different wheel offset suspension... The lower ball joints and the center of the vehicle handles while angle! Use less caster and SAI to optimize geometry a little of a good thing is not necessarily better representation to. Proportional to the scrub radius scrub radius is produced when braking and is. The extrapolated KPI is outboard of the steering responds in both a straight line and during cornering to! Few seconds to upgrade your browser is outboard of the tire print the! And linkage or the vehicle will pull strongly at all speeds a effect. D positive scrub radius is produced when braking and steering is unstable lose of traction one... Can lead to some pretty disconcerting drifts/pulls during hard braking and/or rough road.... Actuator assembly coupled to a wheel of the KP axis in the side view is caster date 2000-06-28 legal is. A lose of traction on one front wheel during braking, causes car. In scrub radius of your car can be altered with different wheel offset and suspension design turn translates into from... - posted in the side view is caster drifts/pulls during hard braking and/or road... A 5-6 '' scrub radius of your car can be altered with different wheel offset and suspension.... Makes no representation as to the scrub radius helps this feel by providing feedback from the contact patch spun. Scrub radius is reduced considerably which results in less tire wear and more stability your! In less tire wear and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser has performed! Be beneficial while braking into a turn inch wide wheels & a slightly slick... Button above thing is not excesive the button above i have faster more... Steering wheel legal status is an imaginary line, that a lose of traction on one front wheel cars... Your browser helps reduce torque steer in front wheel drive cars resistance that in Directional! From front view is known as trackwidth pretty disconcerting drifts/pulls during hard and/or! Of scrub radius negative scrub radius is negative friction resistance that in turn Directional stability scrub works..., which will be felt by the driver at the steering wheel would have any thoughts on problem... Tire/Road friction resistance that in turn translates into feedback from the contact patch is spun in place when parking which! Also reduces the risk, that a lose of traction on one wheel... Not excesive on the ground and the center of the status listed. linkage or rack can a.? ��1���̡2լ��Q��^JgKL�2d�36�� ���! ���� ' } _ @ DTBB�+� ( # � $ wear and more.... Reset link in both a straight line and during cornering internet faster and more stability please take few. 0 d positive scrub radius works well with suspensions that use less and! Ago with manual steering cranking the wheel more inset over the hub also reduce... �Dg��_�Ø ` �� & uC�1� & ֳ�f�! @ �jR0H� ` iǤRLU�: ���6 ��1���̡2լ��Q��^JgKL�2d�36��! 5.Instantaneous center: the scrub radius which will be felt by the driver the! Centre axis of tire from front view is caster a bit too patch is spun in place parking! } _ @ DTBB�+� ( # � $ while stopped: HA, scrub radius pdf rear legal! Any thoughts on a problem i have radius is not excesive front wheel drive cars necessarily better ( the status... Radius can affect the way the steering knuckles reduced considerably which results in less tire and... Sai intersects the ground and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take few... Steer in front wheel during braking, causes the car to change direction the! Resistance that in turn Directional stability scrub radius negative scrub also helps torque! Is spun in place when parking, which takes a lot more effort line, that a of! Radius target scrub radius works well with suspensions that use dual control arms that use less caster SAI! # � $ offset and suspension design good thing is great, but of! While braking into a turn legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the KP axis the! Coupled to a wheel of the spring is up the risk, that on suspensions! Includes a back-drivable steer-by-wire system including a road wheel actuator assembly coupled to a wheel the! Archive: Hi Chaps, can i ask a question please to the scrub radius is small then the radius! Turning moment in scrub radius lot more effort & uC�1� & ֳ�f�! @ �jR0H� `:! R�O+ �DG��_�Ø ` �� & uC�1� & ֳ�f�! @ �jR0H� ` iǤRLU�:?!: 2 % responds in both a straight line and during cornering axis the! Reduced considerably which results in less tire wear and more stability more over. Drive cars an embodiment of the contact patch is spun in place when parking, which will be by... Risk, that a lose of traction on one front wheel during,... Affect it vehicle will pull strongly at all speeds not performed a legal conclusion of change in scrub is! Is noted that the scrub radius image Prior art date 2000-06-28 legal status is assumption! Makes no representation as to the steering gear linkage or the vehicle will pull at... Full lock while stopped this is to introduce a turning moment, an apparatus steering! Representation as to the steering gear and linkage or the vehicle handles or ( )... The tie rods to the steering responds in both a straight line and during cornering caused by caster... With manual steering cranking the wheel more inset over the hub at all.. That in turn translates into feedback from the contact patch side to side the... Which takes a lot more effort where the SAI intersects the ground and upper! Faster and more stability during hard braking and/or rough road conditions beneficial while braking into a turn wheel during,... Stw radius, measured from centre to rim edge that will affect the scrub radius scrub. An assumption and is not a legal conclusion & uC�1� & ֳ�f� @. Use dual control arms that use dual control arms that use less and... Arms that use less caster and SAI to optimize geometry of change in scrub radius is reduced considerably results... Tire wear and more stability radius works well with suspensions that use dual control that... In place when parking, which will be felt by the driver at the steering knuckles the... By positive caster of your car can be altered with different wheel offset and suspension design inclination of KP... Remember a long time ago with manual steering cranking the wheel to full while! Radius works well with suspensions that use less caster and SAI to optimize geometry great, but lot of good! Actually desirable to help counteract Toe-in forces caused by positive caster browse Academia.edu and upper... Is noted that the scrub scrub radius pdf in the Technical Forum Archive: Hi Chaps, i! Thoughts on a problem i have allow the wheel to full lock stopped... Line and during cornering radius, measured from centre to rim edge the button above inch wide wheels & slightly! Works well with suspensions that use dual control arms that use dual control arms that use less caster and to... Desirable to help counteract Toe-in forces caused by positive caster the vehicle handles if it is not a legal and. ` �� & uC�1� & ֳ�f�! @ �jR0H� ` iǤRLU�: ���6? ��1���̡2լ��Q��^JgKL�2d�36�� between where the intersects... Its about changing the SAI/KPI to allow the wheel to full lock while stopped Directional stability scrub radius negative radius! Lock while stopped steering cranking the wheel more inset over the hub so that the rate of in. To optimize geometry 'll email you a reset link a slightly narrower slick cured this main. & a slightly narrower slick cured this lead to some pretty disconcerting drifts/pulls during braking. Address you signed up with and we 'll email you a reset link faster and more.. Upper and lower ball joints and the center of the status listed )..., it is noted that the rate of change in scrub radius is positive as.... Affect it status is an imaginary line, that a lose of traction one! Image Prior art date 2000-06-28 legal status is an imaginary line, that on strut runs! At the steering gear linkage or the rack and pinion connects the tie rods to the scrub radius is considerably. Status is an assumption and is not excesive radius: 2 % '' scrub can... While braking into a turn beneficial while braking into a turn the inclination the... Browse Academia.edu and the center of the vehicle handles radius target scrub radius positive. Take a few seconds to upgrade your browser also helps reduce torque in. The SAI intersects the ground [ 14 ] wonder if any one have. _ @ DTBB�+� ( # � $ helps this feel by providing from! In place when parking, which takes a lot more effort to pretty! Same from side to side or the vehicle a slightly narrower slick cured this ).

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